Title : Evaluating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) as an approach to disease and environment management for sustainable semi-intensive pond culture of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798)
Waste inorganic (nitrogen and phosphorus containing compounds) products from aquaculture results in the environmental degradation of water bodies. The problems on waste accumulation, environmental deterioration, and diseases in aquaculture have been minimized by eco-based method of aquaculture like integrated multi-trophic aquaculture or IMTA. IMTA is the farming of aquaculture species of different trophic levels that allows uneaten feed, waste, and by-products of one species to be utilized as fertilizers, feed, and energy for the other crops, and take the advantage of synergistic interactions among the species. The study aims to evaluate the performance of IMTA as an approach to disease and environmental management towards the development of a sustainable and ecologically balanced culture technology. An experiment was conducted with seven treatment combinations; (T0) P. monodon in monoculture; (T2) P. Monodon, green water using tilapia (T3) P. monodon, C. chanos, U. fasciata, P. viridis; (T4) P. monodon, C. chanos, G. verrucosa. Culture experiment was done in Naawan, Misamis Oriental with 12 ponds measuring 200-m2 and with a feeding rate of 5%. No significant difference (P<0.05) was observed on the growth and survival of P. monodon among treatments (16.92 – 21.81 grams; 46.29 – 58.87 %) except for T0 (13.21 grams; 16.64%). All water parameters are with the optimum values for shrimp culture except for the salinity which is higher than what is required. Ammonia level in the control treatment reached the maximum optimum value of 0.1ppm which can become toxic when pH and temperature rises. IMTA treatment ponds harvested shrimp of approximately 27-kg and a total production 87.87 – 91 kg. Microbial analysis shows the potential of IMTA to prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria. RT-PCR results indicate that IMTA pond treatments can minimize the occurrence of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) which was observed in the control treatment.