Sustainable aquaculture is the commercial cultivation of fish species that has a benign, if not positive, net impact on the environment, contributes to local community development, and generates a profit. Sustainable aquaculture is a dynamic concept, and the long-term viability of a system depends on species, location, societal norms, and the state of knowledge and technology. Sustainable aquaculture has evolved and grown as a concept in response to mounting evidence that wild fisheries are overexploited and alarming numbers of fish species are becoming extinct. Furthermore, sustainable aquaculture has no negative consequences for local animals or poses a threat to wild populations, and it does not employ genetically modified fish or feed. Improvements in aquaculture technology will not be sustainable unless they are accompanied by proper policies that address the social and economic environment in which the aquaculture system operates.