Marine conservation, often known as ocean conservation, is the preservation and protection of ecosystems in oceans and seas by deliberate management to avoid overexploitation of natural resources. Marine conservation is based on research into marine plant and animal resources as well as ecosystem functions, and it is driven by environmental problems such as species extinction, habitat degradation, and changes in ecosystem functions. It focuses on reducing human-caused marine ecosystem damage, recovering damaged marine ecosystems, and maintaining vulnerable marine species and ecosystems.
Freshwater ecosystems (wetlands, lakes, and rivers) are important habitats for many vulnerable species and provide numerous benefits to humans. Freshwater conservation frequently focuses on species that are threatened with extinction or have a high economic value.